The Entrance into the Middle Way (Madhyamakavatara) By Chandrakirti Part 3

The Entrance into the Middle Way (Madhyamakavatara) By Chandrakirti Part 3

L8: [14. Emptiness of defining characteristics]
\ <<< All composite and uncomposite phenomena
\ Have their own individual defining characteristics.
\ These are empty of being themselves.
\ This is the “emptiness of defining characteristics.” (215) >>>
L9: [– a brief explanation]
\ [VI.201cd]
\ #244cd.
\ [That which is the non-thing of suitable to be form and so forth
\ Is the emptiness of definitions (14).
L9: [– an extensive explanation]
L9: [– The definitions of the phenomena of the base]
\ [VI.202]
\ #245.
\ Form has the definition, suitable to be form,
\ Feeling has the nature of experience,
\ Discrimination is apprehending signs,
\ And compositional factors are produced phenomena.
\ [VI.203]
\ #246.
\ The definition of consciousness
\ Is cognizing aspects of individual objects.
\ The definition of aggregate is suffering.
\ The nature of the elements is said to be a poisonous snake.
\ [VI.204]
\ #247.
\ The sources are said by Buddha
\ To be the doors for generation.
\ Within dependent relationship, that which arises
\ Is defined as coming together.
L9: [– The definitions of the phenomena of the path]
\ [VI.205]
\ #248.
\ The perfection of giving is giving away.
\ Moral discipline is defined as without torment.
\ Patience is defined as without anger.
\ Effort is defined as without non-virtue.
\ [VI.206]
\ #249.
\ Mental stabilization is defined as gathering.
\ Wisdom is defined as without attachment.
\ These are given as the definitions
\ Of the six perfections.
\ [VI.207]
\ #250.
\ The mental stabilizations, the immeasurables,
\ And likewise others that are formless
\ Are said by the Perfect Knower
\ To have the definition unperturbed.
\ [VI.208]
\ #251.
\ The thirty-seven realizations conducive to enlightenment
\ Are defined as causing definite emergence.
\ The definition of emptiness
\ Is complete isolation through not observing.
\ [VI.209]
\ #252.
\ Signlessness is pacification;
\ The definition of the third is the absence of suffering and confusion.
\ The [concentrations of] perfect liberation
\ Are defined as perfectly liberating.
L9: [– The definitions of the phenomena of the result]
\ [VI.210]
\ #253.
\ The forces are said to be the nature of
\ Utterly perfect decisiveness.
\ The fearlessnesses of the Protector
\ Are the nature of utter firmness.
\ [VI.211]
\ #254.
\ The correct, specific cognizers
\ Have the definition inexhaustible confidence and so on.
\ Accomplishing the benefit of living beings
\ Is called great love.
\ [VI.212]
\ #255.
\ Completely protecting those who suffer
\ Is great compassion.
\ Joy is defined as supreme joy,
\ And equanimity should be known by the definition unmixed.
\ [VI.213]
\ #256.
\ Whatever are asserted to be
\ The eighteen unshared qualities of a Buddha
\ Are defined as unsurpassed
\ Because the Blessed One is never surpassed by them.
\ [VI.214]
\ #257.
\ The exalted awareness knowing all aspects
\ Is said to have the definition direct perceiver
\ Others, being limited,
\ Are not called direct perceivers
L9: [– a summary]
\ [VI.215]
\ #258.
\ Whether they are definitions of produced phenomena
\ Or definitions of unproduced phenomena,
\ Their mere emptiness
\ Is the emptiness of definitions (14).
L8: #15. Emptiness of the imperceptible
\ <<< The present does not remain;
\ The past and future do not exist.
\ Wherever you look, you cannot see them,
\ So the three times are called, “imperceptible.” (216)
\ The imperceptible is in essence empty of itself.
\ It is neither permanent and stable
\ Nor impermanent and fleeting.
\ This is the “emptiness of the imperceptible.” (217) >>>
\ [VI.216]
\ #259.
\ The present does not remain,
\ And past and future do not exist;
\ Because they are not observed anywhere,
\ They are explained as unobservable. [the three times]
\ [VI.217]
\ #260.
\ That which is the very isolation
\ Of the entities of these unobservable
\ Because they neither remain constant nor disintegrate,
\ Is the emptiness of the unobservable (15).
L8: #16. Emptiness that is the absence of entities
\ <<< Since an entity arises from causes and conditions,
\ It lacks the nature of being a composite.
\ This emptiness of there being anything that is a composite
\ Is the “emptiness that is the absence of entities.” (218) >>>
\ [VI.218]
\ #261.
\ Because they arise from conditions,
\ Things lack the entity of assembling. [lacks the nature of being a composite]
\ The emptiness of assembling
\ Is the emptiness of no thing (16).
L7: [B.2 An extensive explanation of the division of emptiness into four]
L8: #1. Emptiness of entities / things (i.e. Not realism)
\ <<< In short, “entities” are
\ Everything included in the five aggregates.
\ Entities are empty of being entities,
\ And this is the “emptiness of entities.” (219) >>>
\ [VI.219]
\ #262.
\ The term ‘thing’
\ Indicates the five aggregates when condensed.
\ That which is their emptiness
\ Is explained as the emptiness of things (17 / A).
L8: #2. Emptiness of non-entities / non-things (i.e. Not idealism / nihilism)
\ <<< In short, “non-entities” are
\ All uncomposite phenomena.
\ Non-entities are empty of being non-entities,
\ And this is the “emptiness of non-entities.” (220) >>>
\ [VI.220]
\ #263.
\ ‘Non-thing’
\ Indicates unproduced phenomena when condensed.
\ That which is the emptiness of non-things
\ Is the emptiness of non-things (18 / B).
L8: #3. Emptiness of the nature (i.e. Not monism)
\ <<< The nature of phenomena is that they have no essence.
\ It is called their “nature” because no one created it.
\ The nature is empty of itself,
\ And this is the “emptiness of the nature.” (221) >>>
\ [VI.221]
\ #264.
\ Nature’s lack of entityness
\ Is called the emptiness of nature (19/ C).
\ Thus, it is explained that because nature is not created
\ It is called nature.
L8: #4. Emptiness of the entity that is other (i.e. Not dualism)
\ <<< Whether or not Buddhas appear in the world,
\ The natural emptiness of all entities
\ Is proclaimed to be
\ The “entity that is other.” (222)
\ Other names for this are the “genuine limit” and “suchness.”
\ They are empty of themselves and this is the “emptiness of the entity that is other.”
\ In the sutras of The Great Mother, The
\ Transcendent Perfection of Wisdom,
\ These twenty emptinesses are explained in great detail. (223) >>>
\ [VI.222]
\ #265.
\ Whether Buddhas actually appear
\ Or do not appear,
\ The emptiness of all things
\ Is explained as the other entity.
\ [VI.223]
\ #266.
\ The perfect end and thatness
\ Are the emptiness of other entities (20 / D).
\ These explanations have been given
\ According to Perfection of Wisdom.
L4: [2.4 Conclusion by way of expressing the good qualities of the ground]
\ <<< With his broad white wings of the relative and suchness,
\ The king of swans soars ahead to lead the flock.
\ By the power of virtue’s wind
\ He crosses to the far shore of the ocean of the Victor’s supreme qualities. (226) >>>
\ [VI.224]
\ #267.
\ Thus, with the rays of his wisdom he attains a clear appearance
\ Just like an olive resting in the palm of his hand;
\ And realizing that, from the beginning, all these three worlds have been without production,
\ He enters into cessation through the power of nominal truth.
\ [VI.225]
\ #268.
\ Even though his thought is constantly directed towards cessation,
\ He still generates compassion for protectorless living beings.
\ After this, through his wisdom, he will also defeat
\ All those born from the Sugata’s speech and all Middling Buddhas.
\ [VI.226]
\ #269.
\ This king of the geese, spreading his broad, white wings of convention and thatness,
\ Comes to the fore of the geese of living beings
\ And then, through the force of his powerful winds of virtue,
\ Goes to the supreme – the ocean of the Conquerors’ qualities.
L3: [The Seventh Mind Generation Gone Far Beyond (1 verse) – Means]
L4: [The good qualities of the seventh ground]
\ <<< Here on the ground Gone Far Beyond,
\ Instant by instant, they can enter cessation,
\ And the transcendent perfection of method excellently blazes. >>>
\ [VII.1]
\ #270.
\ Here, on Gone Afar (7), he can enter into cessation
\ Instant by instant.
\ And he has also attained a surpassing perfection of means (7).
L3: [The Eighth Mind Generation: Unshakable (3 verses) – Aspiration Prayers]
L4: [The good qualities of the eight ground]
L5: [A. The surpassing prayer on this ground, and how he is raised from cessation]
\ <<< In order again and again to attain virtue even greater than before
\ Here the bodhisattvas become irreversible.
\ The great beings enter the Unshakable ground . . .(1abc) >>>
\ [VIII.1]
\ #271.
\ To attain virtues superior to those of before,
\ This great being strives repeatedly for Immovable (8)
\ On which they never return.
\ <<< And their aspiration prayers become incredibly pure. (1d) >>>
\ #271.
\ His prayers become extremely pure (8),
\ <<< The victors cause them to rise from cessation. (2a) >>>
\ #272a.
\ And he is raised from cessation by the Conquerors.
L5: [B. Showing that he has extinguished all delusions]
\ <<< The various flaws do not remain in the mind free of attachment;
\ Therefore, on the eighth ground, those stains together with their roots are completely pacified.
\ Their kleshas are exhausted and in the three realms they become superior, and yet (2bcd)
\ They cannot attain all the Buddhas’ endowments, which are limitless as the sky. (3a) >>>
\ #272bd.
\ Because his mind of non-attachment does not remain with faults,
\ The eighth-grounder has thoroughly pacified those stains together with their roots;
\ But although his delusions are extinguished and he is the highest of the three grounds,
\ #273a.
\ He cannot yet attain all the qualities of the Buddhas, which are as endless as space.
L5: [C. Showing that he has attained the ten powers]
\ <<< Although samsara has stopped, they gain the ten powers,
\ And demonstrate many emanations to the beings in cyclic existence. (3bc) >>>
\ #273bc.
\ Although samsara has ceased, he attains the ten powers;
\ And with these, causes his nature to be displayed as various beings within samsara.
L3: [The Ninth Mind Generation: Excellent Mind (1 verse) – Forces]
L4: [The good qualities of the ninth ground]
\ <<< What need to mention the strengths they gain on the ninth ground.
\ They all become perfectly pure.
\ Similarly, their own qualities,
\ the dharmas of perfect awareness, become completely pure. >>>
\ [IX.1]
\ #274.
\ On the ninth (i.e. Good Intelligence (9)) all his forces become completely pure (9).
\ Likewise he also attains the completely pure qualities of the correct cognizers of phenomena.
L3: [The Tenth Mind Generation: Cloud of Dharma (1 verse) – Primordial Awareness]
L4: [The good qualities of the tenth ground]
\ <<< On the tenth ground they receive the genuine empowerment from all the Buddhas. (la) >>>
\ [X.1]
\ #275.
\ On the tenth ground (i.e. Cloud of Dharma (10)), he receives holy empowerments from Buddhas in all directions,
\ <<< And their primordial wisdom becomes supreme. (lb) >>>
\ [X.1]
\ #275.b
\ And he also attains a supreme, surpassing exalted awareness (10).
\ <<< Just as rain falls from clouds, from the bodhisattvas falls a spontaneous rain of dharma
\ So that the harvest of beings’ virtue may flourish. (1cd) >>>
\ [X.1]
\ Just as rain falls from rain clouds, so for the sake of living beings’ virtuous crops,
\ A rain of Dharma spontaneously falls from the Conquerors’ Son.
L4: [A. The good qualities of the first ground]
\ [XI.1]
\ #276.
\ At that time he can see a hundred Buddhas
\ And realize their blessings.
\ He remains alive for a hundred aeons
\ And engages perfectly in the ends of the former and the later.
\ #277.
\ This Wise One can enter into and rise from the absorptions of a hundred concentrations.
\ He can cause a hundred worlds to shake, and illuminate them.
\ Likewise, through his magical emanations he can cause a hundred living beings to ripen,
\ And visit a hundred Pure Lands.
\ #278.
\ He can completely open the doors of Dharma, and this Son of the Powerful Able One
\ Can cause bodies to be displayed throughout his body,
\ He can completely open the doors of Dharma, and this Son of the Powerful Able One
\ Can cause bodies to be displayed throughout his body,
\ Each body being endowed with and beautified by its retinue,
\ And revealing a hundred Conquerors’ Sons.
\ [XI.4.a]
\ #279a.
\ These qualities are attained by the Wise One abiding on Very Joyful (1),
L4: [B. The good qualities of the second to the seventh grounds]
\ [XI.4.bcd]
\ #279bcd.
\ And in just the same way they are perfectly attained in thousands
\ By the abider on Stainless (2).
\ On the next five grounds, the Bodhisattva attains
\ #280.
\ A hundred thousand of these, a hundred ten million,
\ a thousand ten million,
\ Then a hundred, thousand ten million,
\ And then ten million one hundred thousand million multiplied by a hundred, and further multiplied by a thousand.
L4: [C. The good qualities of the three pure grounds]
\ [XI.6]
\ #281.
\ Abiding on the ground, Immovable (8), free from conceptions,
\ He attains qualities equal in number
\ To however many atoms there are
\ In a hundred thousand of the three thousand worlds.
\ #282.
\ The Bodhisattva abiding on the ground Good Intelligence (9)
\ Attains the previously mentioned qualities
\ Equal in number to the atoms in a hundred thousand countless
\ Perfectly increased by ten.
\ #283.
\ Briefly, the qualities of the tenth (i.e. Cloud of Dharma (10))
\ Have passed beyond what can be expressed in words,
\ There being as many as there are atoms
\ In all the inexpressible
\ #284.
\ Moment by moment he can display in his hair pores
\ Perfect Buddhas beyond number
\ Together with Bodhisattvas,
\ And likewise gods, demi-gods, and humans.
L5: [A.1 The actual meaning]
\ [XI.10]
\ #285.
\ Just as the moon in a stainless sky illuminates clearly,
\ Previously you strove again for the ground that generates the ten forces.
\ In Akanishta you accomplished the aim for which you strove-
\ All those unequalled, ultimate good qualities of the supreme state of pacification.
\ #286.
\ Just as space has no divisions due to the divisions of vessels,
\ So thatness has no divisions made by things.
\ Therefore, perfectly realizing them to be of one taste,
\ O Good Knower, you realize all objects of knowledge in an instant.
L5: [A.2 Rejecting an argument]
L6: [A.2.1 Stating the other position]
\ #287.
\ ‘If pacification is thatness, wisdom does not engage in it;
\ And with no mind engaging, certainly an object-possessor of the object of knowledge is not possible.
\ Without knowing anything, how can it be a knower?
\ That is a contradiction.
\ If there is no one who knows, how can you teach others ‘It is like this’?’
L6: [A.2.2 Refuting this position]
L7: [i. Rejecting the argument that a knower of thatness is unacceptable]
\ #288.
\ Since non-production is thatness, and the mind has freedom from production,
\ By depending upon that aspect it realizes thatness.
\ For example, when a mind possesses any aspect it knows that object thoroughly.
\ In just the same way, this knows by depending upon a nominality.
L7: [ii. Rejecting the argument that a person knowing thatness is unacceptable]
\ #289.
\ Through the power of his Complete Enjoyment Body maintained by merit,
\ And of its Emanations,
\ Sounds that reveal the Dharma of thatness arise from space and others.
\ Due to these, worldly beings can also realize thatness.
\ #290.
\ Just as here a potter with great strength
\ Expends much energy for a long time turning the wheel,
\ And then while he is not generating effort
\ It turns and is seen to be a cause of a pot,
\ #291.
\ So like that, is he who resides in a body with the nature of Dharma.
\ Without generating any effort now
\ He engages in deeds that are completely beyond thought
\ Due to the special qualities of his prayers and the virtues of beings.
L5: [B.1 A Presentation of Buddha’s bodies]
L6: [B.1.1. An explanation of the truth body]
\ [XI.17]
\ #292.
\ That pacification that comes from the burning of all the dry tinder of objects of knowledge
\ Is the Truth Body of the Conquerors.
\ At that time there is no production and no disintegration .
\ Since minds have ceased, it is experienced directly by the body.
L6: [B.1.2. An explanation of the complete enjoyment body]
\ #293.
\ This pacified body is resplendent, like a wish-granting tree
\ And without conception, like a wish-fulfilling jewel.
\ It will remain always until living beings are liberated, for the fortune of the world,
\ And appear to those who are free from elaboration.
L6: [B.1.3. An explanation of the body corresponding to its cause — emanation bodies]
L7: [B.1.3.1 How he displays all his deeds in one pore of his body]
\ #294.
\ The Powerful Able One, at one time, in one Form Body
\ Corresponding to that cause, clearly and without disorder
\ Makes a complete and exquisite display
\ Of everything that happened during his previous lives now ceased.
\ #295.
\ What the Buddha Lands and their Powerful Able Ones were like;
\ What their bodies, deeds, and powers were like;
\ How many assemblies of I fearers there were, and what they were like;
\ What forms the Bodhisattvas took there;
\ #296.
\ What the Dharma was like, and what he was like then;
\ What deeds were performed from listening to Dharma;
\ How much giving was practiced towards them –
\ All these he displays in one body.
\ #297.
\ Likewise what moral discipline, patience, effort, concentration, and wisdom
\ He practiced during previous lives;
\ He displays clearly all these deeds without leaving anything out,
\ In just one hair pore of his body.
L7: [B.1.3.2 How he displays all the deeds of others there]
\ #298.
\ Buddhas who have passed away, those who are yet to come,
\ And those of the present dwelling in the world,
\ Revealing Dharma in a loud voice carrying to the ends of space
\ And bestowing breath on living beings tormented by suffering;
\ #299.
\ All their deeds from first generating the mind
\ Through to the essence of enlightenment,
\ Knowing these things to be the nature of illusions,
\ He displays them all clearly at one time in one hair pore.
\ #300.
\ Likewise the deeds of all Superior Bodhisattvas,
\ Solitary Realizers, and Hearers of the three times,
\ And all the activities of the remaining beings;
\ He displays all of these at one time in one pore.

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