Four Hundred Stanzas on the Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas (catuhsataka sastra karika nama) Aryadeva – 1

The Treatise of the Four Hundred Stanzas on the Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas
(catuhsataka sastra karika nama)
Aryadeva

L1: [Prologue – P.57]
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\ Homage to the foremost excellent ones
\ who possess great compassion.
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L1: [Part I : Explaining the Stages of the Paths dependent on conventional truths (accumulating merit)]
L1: [Section I – A : Showing how the aspiring altruistic intention [bodhicitta] is generated after training in the attitudes of a person of intermediate capacity by explaining elimination of the four errors.]
L2: [Chapter 1 – Abandoning Belief in Permanence / Death & everything is impermanent – P.65]
L3: [I. Brief explanation urging conscientious effort on the path to liberation by being mindful of death – 1]
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\ 1.
\ If those whose lord is Death himself,
\ Ruler of the three worlds, without a master,
\ Sleep soundly like true [vanquishers],
\ What could be more improper?
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L3: [II. Extensively explaining how to meditate on impermanence]
L4: [A. How to cultivate awareness of one’s own death]
L5: [1. Meditation on coarse impermanence]
L6: [a. Being alive does not avert death and one should not trust in just that]
L7: [(1) Actual explanation – 2]
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\ 2.
\ Those who are born only to die
\ And whose nature is to be driven,
\ Appear to be in the act of dying
\ And not in the act of living.
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L7: [(2) Refuting lack of fear through thinking one will live long – 3]
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\ 3.
\ You see the path as brief
\ Yet see the future differently.
\ To think both equal or unequal
\ Is clearly like a cry of fear.
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L6: [b. Inappropriateness of not fearing death because it is common to all – 4]
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\ 4.
\ Since death is common to others to,
\ You have no fear of it.
\ Does jealousy cause suffering
\ When only one is harmed?
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L6: [c. Inappropriateness of not fearing death because of treatments for sickness and aging – 5]
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\ 5.
\ Sickness can be cured and aging treated,
\ Therefore you do not fear them.
\ Yet there is no cure for the last ordeal;
\ Thus obviously you fear it.
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L6: [d. Extreme inappropriateness of not fearing death because the time of one’s death is uncertain]
L7: [(1) Need to fear death because of being common to all and directly visible – 6]
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\ 6.
\ Like a cattle intended for slaughter,
\ Death is common to all.
\ Moreover when you see others die
\ Why do you not fear the Lord of Death?
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L7: [(2) Refuting unnecessariness of fear because a definite time of death is not foreseen – 7]
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\ 7.
\ If because the time is uncertain
\ You think you are eternal,
\ One day the Lord of Death
\ Will do you injury.
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L6: [e. Refuting that death does not cause the brave fear]
L7: [(1) Unfeasibility of only cowards fearing death – 8]
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\ 8.
\ If you consider future goals
\ But not your waning life,
\ Who would call intelligent
\ Such selling of yourself?
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L7: [(2) Unsuitability of doing ill deeds to safeguard one’s life – 9]
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\ 9.
\ Why do you do ill deeds,
\ Pledging yourself as security?
\ Of course, like the wise, you must be
\ Free of attachment to yourself.
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L5: [2. Meditation on subtle impermanence]
L6: [a. Since life diminishes moment by moment, do not trust it – 10]
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\ 10.
\ No matter whose life, it does not
\ Differ from the moments of mind.
\ This people certainly do not perceive.
\ Thus it is rare to know the self.
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L6: [b. Inappropriateness of attachment to continuation because liking to live long and not wanting to be old are contradictory – 11]
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\ 11.
\ You would like to live long
\ But dislike old age.
\ Amazing! Your behavior
\ Seems right to people like you.
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L4: [B. Inappropriateness of grieving only at others’ deaths while overlooking the disadvantages of not being free from fear of death oneself]
L5: [1. Brief explanation – 12]
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\ 12.
\ Why do you not grieve death
\ On account of your son and others?
\ When the one that laments is a victim,
\ How is that not reprehensible?
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L5: [2. Extensive explanation by answering objections]
L6: [a. Refuting the appropriateness of grief because one’s son went to the next world without asking]
L7: [(1) Actual explanation – 13]
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\ 13.
\ If, unrequested, someone has
\ Become your son, it is not
\ Unreasonable if he leaves
\ Without having asked.
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L7: [(2) But for one’s confusion, implicitly he did ask to go – 14]
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\ 14.
\ Only because of your confusion
\ You did not notice your son’s [indications].
\ His enthusiasm to go
\ Is shown by his growing old.
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L6: [b. Inappropriateness of being very attached to one’s son]
L7: [(1) Reasons for the inappropriateness of extreme attachment to one’s son – 15]
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\ 15.
\ A son does not love [his father]
\ As much as his father loves him.
\ People in the world go down;
\ Thus, a high rebirth is hard to find.
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L7: [(2) Inappropriateness of attachment whether he is obedient or disobedient – 16]
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\ 16.
\ When he is disobedient
\ No one will call him lovable.
\ In that case attachment is
\ Nothing but a transaction.
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L7: [(3) Unfeasibility of a father’s attachment to his son being steadfast without depending on other factors – 17]
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\ 17.
\ Suffering caused by separation
\ Is quickly gone from human hearts.
\ See, too, attachment’s instability,
\ Indicated by suffering’s end.
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L6: [c. Inappropriateness of grieving over a dead person in front of other people – 18]
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\ 18.
\ Knowing it is of no benefit,
\ Still you have injured yourself.
\ You make yourself a hypocrite,
\ Which also is improper.
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L6: [d. Inappropriateness of grieving for a dead relative to ensure a close relationship with surviving relatives – 19]
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\ 19.
\ People in this world wander,
\ Full, as it were, of suffering.
\ Why fill with suffering
\ People who already suffer?
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L6: [e. Inappropriateness of attachment to being with relatives and so forth]
L7: [(1) Actual explanation – 20]
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\ 20.
\ If meeting is a joy to you
\ Why is parting not also a joy?
\ Do not meeting and parting
\ Both seem to go together?
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L7: [(2) Inappropriateness of attachment to lasting friendships – 21]
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\ 21.
\ When the past is beginningless
\ And the future endless,
\ Why do you notice being together
\ But not the separations, though they be long?
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L6: [f. Inappropriateness of attachment to the seasons’ marvels – 22]
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\ 22.
\ Time, [consisting of] instants and so forth,
\ Is certainly like an enemy.
\ Therefore never be attached
\ To that which is your enemy.
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L4: [C. Advice to make effort to practice the path to liberation, giving up attachment to bad actions]
L5: [1. Inappropriateness of relying on punitive action regarding what must be done – 23]
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\ 23.
\ Fool, because you fear separation,
\ You do not leave home.
\ Who that is wise does under punishment
\ What must certainly be done?
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L5: [2. Advice as to the appropriateness of giving up bad actions to live in seclusion from the very start – 24]
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\ 24.
\ You may think you must obviously
\ Go to the forest once this has been done.
\ Whatever you do must be left behind.
\ What is the value of having done it?
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L3: [III. The benefits of meditating on impermanence – 25]
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\ 25.
\ Whoever with certainty has
\ The thought, “I am going to die,”
\ Having completely relinquished attachment,
\ Why would they fear even the Lord of Death?
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L3: [The summarizing stanza:]
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\ That which cuts craving for reward and honor,
\ The best spur to practice with effort in seclusion,
\ The excellent secret of all the scriptures,
\ Is initially to REMEMBER DEATH.
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\ This is the first chapter from the Four Hundred on the Yogic Deeds, showing the means to abandon the belief in permanence.
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L2: [Chapter 2 – Abandoning Belief in Pleasure – Everything is unsatisfying – P.83]
L3: [I. Explaining the stanzas individually]
L4: [A. How to meditate on the suffering nature of the coarse body]
L5: [1. Way of showing the suffering body]
L6: [a. Necessity of protecting the body from deterioration despite recognizing its suffering nature – 26]
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\ 26.
\ Although THE BODY is seen like a foe,
\ Nevertheless it should be protected.
\ By long sustaining a disciplined [body]
\ Great merit is created.
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L6: [b. Eliminating strong attachment to the body – 27]
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\ 27.
\ When human suffering is produced
\ By the body, and pleasure by other [factors],
\ Why are you devoted to
\ This hull, a container of suffering?
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L5: [2. Explaining extensively how to meditate on suffering]
L6: [a. Considering how this body mainly has suffering]
L7: [(1) Actual explanation – 28]
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\ 28.
\ When humans do not have
\ As much pleasure as pain,
\ Should so much pain
\ Be considered negligible?
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L7: [(2) Considering how suffering follows one though one wants pleasure and does not want suffering – 29]
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\ 29.
\ Ordinary people are bent on pleasure;
\ Those who have pleasure are hard to find.
\ Thus it is as if transitory
\ Beings are pursued by suffering.
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L6: [b. Considering how suffering comes easily without the need for great effort]
L7: [(1) If one wishes for rare pleasure, it is appropriate to fear plentiful suffering – 30]
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\ 30.
\ Suffering is found at will,
\ But what pleasure is there at will?
\ Why do you value the rare
\ But do not fear the plentiful?
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L7: [(2) Valuing the body out of attachment is like valuing a foe – 31]
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\ 31.
\ A comfortable body
\ Is a container of suffering.
\ Thus valuing the body and
\ Valuing a foe both seem alike.
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L6: [c. Considering how the body does not transcend its suffering nature – 32]
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\ 32.
\ The body, however long one spends,
\ Will not in itself become pleasurable.
\ To say its nature can be overruled
\ By other factors is improper.
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L6: [d. Considering how suffering causes harm – 33]
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\ 33.
\ The high have mental suffering;
\ For the common it comes from the body.
\ Day by day, both kinds of suffering
\ Overwhelm people in the world.
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L6: [e. Considering how very powerful pain is – 34]
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\ 34.
\ Pleasure is governed by thoughts;
\ Thoughts are governed by pain.
\ Thus there is nothing anywhere
\ More powerful than pain.
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L6: [f. Considering how the sensation of pleasure is like a visitor to the body – 35]
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\ 35.
\ With the passage of time
\ Pain increases.
\ Pleasure, therefore, seems as if
\ Alien to this body.
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L6: [g. It is therefore proper to develop aversion to the suffering nature of the body – 36]
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\ 36.
\ There seem to be many causes
\ of suffering, like sickness and others,
\ But humans do not seem to have
\ As many causes of pleasure.
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L5: [3. Refuting the existence of real pleasure]
L6: [a. Showing that though real suffering exists, real pleasure does not]
L7: [(1) Reasons why seeing a slight increase in pleasure does not prove the existence of real pleasure – 37]
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\ 37.
\ With the intensification of pleasure
\ Its opposite is seen to occur.
\ With the intensification of pain
\ There will not likewise be its opposite.
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L7: [(2) Although there are causes producing real suffering, there are none producing real pleasure – 38]
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\ 38.
\ With the conditions for pleasure
\ its opposite is seen.
\ With the conditions for pain
\ There is not its opposite.
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L6: [b. Showing it is erroneous to think of suffering as pleasure]
L7: [(1) Inappropriateness of considering the process of dying pleasurable – 39]
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\ 39.
\ When you have spent, are spending
\ And will spend time dying,
\ It is not at all proper to call
\ The process of dying pleasurable.
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L7: [(2) Inappropriateness of considering being afflicted pleasurable – 40]
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\ 40.
\ When beings with bodies are constantly
\ Afflicted by hunger and so forth,
\ It is not at all proper to call
\ Being afflicted pleasurable.
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L7: [(3) Inappropriateness of considering pleasurable a composite of various incompatible factors which is like an enemy – 41]
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\ 41.
\ Though powerless, the combining of
\ All the elements produces [the body];
\ Thus it is not at all proper to call
\ What is incompatible pleasurable.
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L7: [(4) Inappropriateness of considering being destroyed pleasurable – 42]
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\ 42.
\ When there is never that
\ Which will relieve cold and so forth,
\ It is not at all proper to call
\ Being destroyed pleasurable.
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L7: [(5) Inappropriateness of considering the doing of tiring actions pleasurable – 43]
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\ 43.
\ When on earth no action is
\ Done without exertion,
\ It is not at all proper to call
\ Performing actions pleasurable.
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L7: [(6) Inappropriateness of considering pleasurable the creation of the causes of suffering for the sake of a little pleasure – 44]
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\ 44.
\ In this [life] and in others, always
\ One should guard against ill deeds.
\ Calling them pleasurable is not at all
\ Proper when there are bad rebirths.
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L6: [c. From the start there is no real pleasure in riding and so forth – 45]
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\ 45.
\ There is never any pleasure
\ For human in riding and so forth.
\ How can that which at the start
\ Does not begin, in the end increase?
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L6: [d. Ordinary people think of the feeling of satisfaction from alleviated pain as real pleasure – 46]
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\ 46.
\ Thinking the alleviation
\ Of pain is pleasure
\ Is like someone who feels delight
\ Vomiting into a gold pot.
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L6: [e. Showing other reasons why there is no real pleasure]
L7: [(1) Real pleasure’s existence is not established by seeing slight incipient pain stop intense pain – 47]
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\ 47.
\ By beginning it stops the produced —
\ How can pain that begins be pleasure?
\ It seems the Subduer therefore said
\ Both birth and cessation are suffering.
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L7: [(2) Common beings do not have pleasure that can effectively override pain – 48]
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\ 48.
\ If common beings do not see suffering
\ Because pleasure disguises it,
\ Why is there no pleasure
\ Which obscures suffering?
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L4: [B. The Teacher therefore spoke of meditating on the body as suffering – 49]
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\ 49.
\ Common beings must be told, “You are not
\ Free from attachment to suffering.”
\ Certainly Tathagatas therefore have said
\ This is the worst confusion at all.
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L4: [C. How to meditate on the pervasive suffering of conditioning – 50]
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\ 50.
\ The impermanent is definitely harmed.
\ What is harmed is not pleasurable.
\ Therefore ALL THAT IS IMPERMANENT
\ IS SAID TO BE SUFFERING.
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L3: [The summarizing stanza:]
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\ Abiding in this fathomless ocean of cyclic existence,
\ Utterly tormented by the crocodiles of disturbing emotions,
\ What sentient beings would not feel aversion?
\ WITH EFFORT ENDEAVOR TO ATTAIN ENLIGHTENMENT.
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\ This is the second chapter from the Four Hundred on the Yogic Deeds, showing the means to abandon the belief in pleasure.
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L2: [Chapter 3 – Abandoning Belief in Cleanness – the temporary antidote to sensual desire – P.101]
L3: [I. Refuting that pleasure is experienced through satisfaction from savoring attractive objects]
L4: [A. Refuting satisfaction through completely enjoying the objects one craves – 51]
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\ 51.
\ Regardless of the amount of time,
\ Concerning objects there is no limit.
\ Your exertion for the body’s sake
\ Is, like a bad physician’s, useless.
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L4: [B. An analogy [showing how] rather than becoming free from desire, it increases in proportion to use of the things one craves – 52]
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\ 52.
\ Just as the craving for earth
\ Does not stop in those that subsist on it,
\ Similarly, longing for sensual pleasure
\ Grows in people as they indulge.
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L3: [II. Explaining extensively why it is inappropriate to consider the body clean]
L4: [A. Refuting desire for women’s bodies]
L5: [1. Inappropriateness of desire towards a woman’s beautiful appearance]
L6: [a. Reasons for the inappropriateness of desire for a woman’s beautiful appearance – 53]
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\ 53.
\ Among all women there is not the least
\ Difference in sexual intercourse.
\ When others, too, enjoy her appearance,
\ What use is this perfect woman to you?
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L6: [b. Desire is not necessarily caused only by a beautiful appearance – 54]
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\ 54.
\ Whoever sees her as appealing
\ Thinks himself satisfied with her.
\ Since even dogs and the like share this,
\ Why, fool, are you attracted?
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L5: [2. Inappropriateness of desire based on the difficulty of finding [one with] a beautiful appearance – 55]
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\ 55.
\ This woman, every part of whom is
\ Lovely to you, was common to all before.
\ Finding her is not as
\ Astonishing as it is for you.
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L5: [3. Refuting desire for a woman with good qualities]
L6: [a. Inappropriateness of desire for a woman with good qualities – 56]
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\ 56.
\ If those with good qualities seem attractive
\ And their opposite the reverse,
\ Which is true, former or latter?
\ For neither alone persists.
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L6: [b. Neither desire as a consequence only of good qualities nor the converse necessarily pertains – 57]
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\ 57.
\ A fool’s desire does not arise
\ Only for those with good qualities.
\ How can reason prevent
\ Those involved in it without reason?
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L5: [4. Inappropriateness of desire for a woman exceptionally attached to one – 58]
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\ 58.
\ As long as she knows no other
\ She will remain with you.
\ As with disease, woman should always be
\ Kept from opportunity.
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L5: [5. Advice to associate with women given in social treatises is erroneous – 59]
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\ 59.
\ In old age one dislikes
\ What one did during youth.
\ Why would the liberated not
\ Be extremely saddened by it?
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L5: [6. Other reasons for the inappropriateness of desire for women]
L6: [a. Unfeasibility of the pleasure from intercourse with women as the best pleasure in the Desire Realm – 60]
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\ 60.
\ Those without desire have no pleasure,
\ Nor do those not foolish have it.
\ How can there be pleasure for one
\ Whose mind constantly strays?
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L6: [b. Unfeasibility of having exclusive control over a woman because of one’s desire for her – 61]
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\ 61.
\ You cannot have intercourse constantly
\ With a woman to match your attentiveness to her.
\ Why keep her possessively with the thought,
\ “She is mine and no one else’s.”
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L6: [c. Refuting that desire is pleasurable* – 62]
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\ 62.
\ If desire were pleasurable
\ There would be no need for women.
\ Pleasure is not regarded as
\ Something to get rid of.
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L6: [d. Unfeasibility of women alone as the cause of pleasure during intercourse with them – 63]
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\ 63.
\ Even in intercourse with a woman
\ Pleasure arises from other [factors].
\ What sensible person would say
\ It is caused just by his lover?
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L6: [e. Unfeasibility of the pleasure from women being desirable because the infatuated pursue them – 64]
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\ 64.
\ Blinded by desire they do not see
\ Sensuality’s fault, like a leper scratching.
\ Those free from desire see the infatuated
\ As suffering like the leper.
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L4: [B. Refuting desire while seeing the body as unclean]
L5: [1. Refuting that a woman’s physical and verbal behavior is pleasurable because when with her one bears the gross insults she inflicts – 65]
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\ 65.
\ During a famine the destitute,
\ Tormented by hunger, [bear] what occurs.
\ This is how all the infatuated
\ Behave when they are with women.
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L5: [2. Refuting the existence of pleasure through women because of the jealousy felt over them towards other men – 66]
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\ 66.
\ Through arrogance one may be
\ Attached even to one’s privy.
\ Anyone infatuated with
\ A woman will be jealous of others.
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L5: [3. Inappropriateness of strong desire on realizing that women’s bodies are unclean – 67]
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\ 67.
\ It is reasonable for confusion
\ And anger about the unclean to occur;
\ It is not at all reasonable
\ For desire to occur.
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L5: [4. Refuting that the body is not objectionable on the grounds that it is without shortcomings – 68]
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\ 68.
\ If, except to some people,
\ A pot of filth is objectionable,
\ Why would one not think objectionable
\ That from which the filth comes?
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L5: [5. Refuting the idea that women’s bodies are clean – 69]
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\ 69.
\ Clean things are looked upon
\ As the most worthless of all.
\ What intelligent person
\ Would say that it is clean?
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L5: [6. Refuting other seeming reasons for considering the body clean]
L6: [a. Refuting the idea of the body as clean because others are seen to be proud of it – 70]
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\ 70.
\ Whoever has lived in a privy
\ And without it would not have survived,
\ In such a dung-worm, arrogance
\ Arises only through stupidity.
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L6: [b. Refuting that the body is clean because one sees what is unclean about it being removed with effort – 71]
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\ 71.
\ No means whatsoever will purify
\ The inside of the body.
\ The efforts you make toward the outside
\ Do not match those toward the inside.
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L6: [c. Refuting that women’s bodies need not be given up on the grounds that sages are seen to enjoy them – 72]
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\ 72.
\ If, like leprosy, being full of
\ Urine were not common to all,
\ Those full of urine, just like lepers,
\ Would be shunned by everyone.
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L3: [III. Refuting the idea of cleanness because of wearing perfumes and so forth – 73]
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\ 73.
\ Just as someone lacking a part
\ Is delighted with a substitute nose,
\ Desire holds that impurity is
\ Remedied by flowers and so forth.
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L3: [IV. Refuting the idea that anything towards which freedom from desire may arise is clean – 74]
.
\ 74.
\ It is inappropriate to call clean that
\ Toward which freedom from desire arises.
\ Nor is there anything which is
\ A definitive cause of desire.
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L3: [V. Nominally all four non-erroneous features are possible with regard to one thing – 75]
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\ 75.
\ In summary, all four, that is
\ IMPERMANENCE, UNCLEANNESS, SUFFERING
\ And SELFLESSNESS are possible
\ With regard to a single [thing].
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L3: [The summarizing stanza:]
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\ Understanding that sentient beings are also bound
\ Like oneself in this unclean prison,
\ With energy generate compassion observing transmigrators,
\ And make effort to accomplish highest enlightenment.
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\ This is the third chapter from the Four Hundred on the Yogic Deeds, showing the means to abandon the belief in cleanness.
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L2: [Chapter 4 – Abandoning Pride – no absolute basis for pride – P.117]
L3: [I. Briefly showing how to refute pride’s referent object – 76]
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\ 76.
\ Who that is wise about worldly existence
\ Would be arrogant, thinking “I” and “mine”?
\ For all things belong equally
\ To all embodied beings.
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L3: [II. Extensive explanation]
L4: [A. Refuting arrogance based on power and wealth]
L5: [1. Abandoning haughtiness for five reasons]
L6: [a. Inappropriateness of arrogance because the name of king has been given to a servant – 77]
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\ 77.
\ Society’s servant, paid with a sixth part,
\ Why are you so arrogant?
\ Your becoming the agent of actions
\ Depends on being placed in control
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L6: [b. Inappropriateness of arrogance because of having the power to give and collect wealth – 78]
.
\ 78.
\ When those in his care receive their due,
\ They think of their master as the giver.
\ When the master gives what is to be given,
\ He thinks with conceit, “I am the giver.”
.
L6: [c. Inappropriateness of arrogance because of enjoying whatever objects one wishes – 79]
.
\ 79.
\ That which you wrongly regard,
\ Others [consider] as source of suffering.
\ Living by working for others,
\ What causes you pleasure?
.
L6: [d. Inappropriateness of arrogance because of being the guardian of the people – 80]
.
\ 80.
\ When a ruler seems to be the protector
\ Of his people, as well as protected,
\ Why be proud because of the one?
\ Why not be free from pride because of the other?
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L6: [e. Inappropriateness of arrogance because of having the merit of protecting all beings – 81]
.
\ 81.
\ Those in each caste prefer their own work;
\ Thus a living is hard to find.
\ If you become non-virtuous
\ Good rebirths will be scarce for you.
.
L5: [2. It is inappropriate for a king to be proud – 82]
.
\ 82.
\ Those who act at other’s insistence
\ Are called fools on this earth.
\ There is no one else at all
\ So dependent on others as you.
.
L5: [3. Considering what is religious and irreligious]
L6: [a. Establishing that violent action towards others by a king is irreligious]
L7: [(1) Inappropriateness of pride because the protection of the people depends on the king – 83]
.
\ 83.
\ Claiming that “protection depends on me,”
\ You take payment from the people,
\ But if you perform ill deeds,
\ Who is equally merciless?
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L7: [(2) Punishment of wrongdoers by the king is unsuitable as a religious activity – 84]
.
\ 84.
\ If people who do ill deeds
\ Should not be treated with mercy,
\ All ordinary childish people
\ Would also not need to be protected.
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L7: [(3) Refuting that punishment of the unruly by the king is not an ill deed – 85]
.
\ 85.
\ There is nothing that will not serve
\ As a reason for happiness.
\ Reasons such as scriptural statements
\ Will not destroy demerit.
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L6: [b. Refuting that it is a religious activity]
L7: [(1) Refuting that protecting the people by punishing the unruly is a religious activity – 86]
.
\ 86.
\ If giving proper protection is
\ A ruler’s religious practice,
\ Why would the toil of artisans too
\ Not be religious practice?
.
L7: [(2) Analogy showing that when an intelligent king protects his people out of attachment, it is not a religious activity – 87]
.
\ 87.
\ This example shows the ruler on whom
\ The people rely as reprehensible.
\ The excellent see attachment to existence
\ As mother of all those in the world.
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L7: [(3) The reason why it is not a religious activity is because it is a basis for pride and carelessness – 88]
.
\ 88.
\ The sensible do not acquire kingship.
\ Since fools have no compassion,
\ These merciless rulers of men,
\ Although protectors, are irreligious.
.
L6: [c. Not everything stated by sages should be taken as valid]
L7: [(1) Why not everything stated by sages is valid – 89]
.
\ 89.
\ Sages’ activities are not all
\ [Actions] that the wise perform,
\ For there are inferior,
\ Mediocre and superior ones.
.
L7: [(2) Showing that the happiness of the people is not assured by taking social treatises to be valid – 90]
.
\ 90.
\ Virtuous rulers of the past
\ Protected the people like their children.
\ Through the practices of this time of strife
\ It is now like a waste without wildlife.
.
L6: [d. Violence toward enemies is irreligious – 91]
.
\ 91.
\ If a king who seizes the occasion
\ To harm is not doing wrong,
\ Then others, too, such as thieves
\ Have not done so in the first place.
.
L6: [e. Dying in battle is not a cause for a happy transmigration – 92]
.
\ 92.
\ If giving all one has for liquor
\ And so on is not an offering,
\ Why consider it an offering
\ To give oneself in battle?
.
L5: [4. It is inappropriate for a king to feel distressed – 93]
.
\ 93.
\ You, the king, guardian of the people,
\ Have no guardian yourself.
\ Since your guardianship does not
\ Release you, who would be happy?
.
L5: [5. Inappropriateness of punishing harshly when ruling – 94]
.
\ 94.
\ Though a king is famous after his death
\ It will bring no benefit.
\ Do you, being worthless, and those who
\ Cook dogs not have notoriety?
.
L4: [B. Refuting arrogance because of caste]
L5: [1. Refuting arrogance because of being a king’s son – 95]
.
\ 95.
\ When all power and wealth
\ Are produced by merit,
\ It cannot be said that this one
\ Will not be a basis for power and wealth.
.
L5: [2. Refuting arrogance merely because of being royal caste]
L6: [a. There have not always been distinct castes – 96]
.
\ 96.
\ In the world caste is determined
\ With regard to the main means of livelihood.
\ Thus there is no division among
\ All sentient beings by way of caste.
.
L6: [b. Since there are four castes, a royal caste existent by way of its own entity is not ascertained – 97]
.
\ 97.
\ Since it was very long ago
\ And women’s minds are fickle,
\ There is no one from the caste
\ Known as the royal caste.
.
L6: [c. Refuting that one becomes royal caste through the work of protecting everyone – 98]
.
\ 98.
\ If even of common caste
\ Through his work could become royal caste,
\ One might wonder why even a commoner
\ Should not become Brahim through his work.
.
L4: [C. Showing other means to give up ill deeds]
L5: [1. Refuting the appropriateness of arrogance because kings have great possessions and, when the time is right, can distribute great power and wealth such as riches to many people – 99]
.
\ 99.
\ A king’s ill deeds cannot be
\ Distributed like his wealth.
\ What wise person ever destroys
\ Their future for another’s sake?
.
L5: [2. Refuting that it is therefore appropriate for kings to be very conceited – 100]
.
\ 100.
\ Pride caused by power and wealth
\ Does not remain in the hearts of the wise,
\ Once one has looked at others
\ With equal or superior power.
.
L3: [The summarizing stanza:]
.
\ Thinking about the impermanence and uncleanness of the body,
\ Understand the faults of attachment to it.
\ Make effort to achieve unsurpassable enlightenment
\ And GIVE UP PRIDE IN BOTH “I” AND “MINE”.
.
\ This is the fourth chapter from the Four Hundred on the Yogic Deeds, showing the means to abandon the conception of a self.

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